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The Black Navigation menu VideoHow Black Women Save Democracy Meet Me Halfway war die dritte Singleauskopplung aus The E. Der Erfolg des Albums blieb aus, lediglich in der Schweiz und Frankreich konnte es sich in den Charts platzieren. DE 1 Ard Mediathek Saboteure Im Eis 60 Wo. Weit über's Meer David's Song MTV Unplugged [feat. Dortmund Bremen Dfb August Phoenixsee Wdr, Main articles: Afro-Portuguese and Black people in Ireland. Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea Pechora Klimawechsel Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea. By BC, permanent Greek communities existed all around the Black Sea and a lucrative trade network connected the entirety of The Black Black David Cronenberg to the wider Mediterranean. Bagley et al. Black Sea Common Dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi. Deep-Sea Research Part I. University of Delaware College of Marine Studies. Archived from the original on 20 May Largest rivers flowing into the Black Sea: . Retrieved 1 October Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington Datensicherung Auf Festplatte. It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straitsthat the Black Sea joins the world ocean. External Sites.
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These negroes are the remnants of the original inhabitants of the fluvial region of Somaliland who were overwhelmed by the wave of Somali conquest.
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The Afro-Asian Population Exemplifies Park's Definition of Marginalization, in That They Are the "product of Human Migrations and Socio-cultural Conflict.
They Also Fit into Green and Goldberg's Definition of Psychological Marginalization, Which Constitutes Multiple Attempts at Assimilation with the Dominant Culture Followed by Continued Rejection.
The Magazine Ebony, from , Outlines a Number of Afro-Asians in Japan Who Find Themselves as Outcasts, Most of Which Try to Find Acceptance within the American Military Bubble, but with Varying Degrees of Success.
Retrieved 4 July Klein , Historical Dictionary of Slavery and Abolition , Page xxii, Saudi Arabia and Yemen abolished slavery in , Oman in The Washington Post.
Historians say that most African-Iraqis arrived as slaves from East Africa as part of the Arab slave trade starting about 1, years ago.
They worked in southern Iraq's salt marshes and sugarcane fields. Though slavery — which in Iraq included Arabs as well as Africans — was banned in the s, it continued until the s, African-Iraqis say.
Recently, they have begun to campaign for recognition as a minority population, which would grant them the same benefits as Christians, including reserved seats in Parliament To the present day there are Arab princes in Saudi Arabia who, in the Western world, would be regarded as 'Black'.
One of the main reasons why the African Diaspora in the Arab world is so small is that people with African blood are much more readily accepted as Arabs than they would be accepted as 'Whites' in the Americas.
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Runtime: 94 min. Color: Color. Edit page. Clear your history. Although geologists inferred that these rocks might have hydrocarbons that migrated from the Maykop Suite, the well was unsuccessful.
No more drilling happened for five years after the HPX-1 well. Then in , Sinop-1 targeted carbonate reservoirs potentially charged from the nearby Maykop Suite on the Andrusov Ridge, but the well-struck only Cretaceous volcanic rocks.
Yassihöyük-1 encountered similar problems. Other Turkish wells, Sürmene-1 and Sile-1 drilled in the Eastern Black Sea in and respectively tested four-way closures above Cretaceous volcanoes, with no results in either case.
A different Turkish well, Kastamonu-1 drilled in did successfully find thermogenic gas in Pliocene and Miocene shale-cored anticlines in the Western Black Sea.
A year later in , Romania drilled Domino-1 which struck gas prompting the drilling of other wells in the Neptun Deep. In , the Bulgarian well Polshkov-1 targeted Maykop Suite sandstones in the Polshkov High and Russia is in the process of drilling Jurassic carbonates on the Shatsky Ridge as of The Turkish drilling ship Fatih , had been carrying out exploration operations in the Tuna-1 sector in the western Black Sea for the past month.
Current names of the sea are usually equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: .
In Greece , the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning see below , is still widely used:.
Strabo 's Geographica 1. He also thought the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization for its difficult navigation and hostile barbarian natives 7.
Popular supposition derives "Black Sea" from the dark color of the water or climatic conditions. Rather, it referred to a system of color symbolism representing the cardinal directions , with black or dark for north, red for south, white for west, and green or light blue for east.
The Black Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, [a] and is the world's largest body of water with a meromictic basin.
Because of the extreme stratification, it is classified as a salt wedge estuary. The Black Sea only experiences water transfer with the Mediterranean Sea , so all inflow and outflow occurs in the Bosporus and Dardanelles.
Inflow from the Mediterranean has a higher salinity and density than the outflow, creating the classic estuarine circulation. This means that the inflow of dense water from the Mediterranean occurs at the bottom of the basin while the outflow of fresher Black Sea surface-water into the Marmara Sea occurs near the surface.
This allows for turbulent mixing of the two layers. Likewise, an inflow of the Mediterranean with salinity Mean surface circulation is cyclonic and waters around the perimeter of the Black Sea circulate in a basin-wide shelfbreak gyre known as the Rim Current.
Within this feature, two smaller cyclonic gyres operate, occupying the eastern and western sectors of the basin.
Mesoscale activity in the peripheral flow becomes more pronounced during these warmer seasons and is subject to interannual variability.
Outside of the Rim Current, numerous quasi-permanent coastal eddies are formed as a result of upwelling around the coastal apron and "wind curl" mechanisms.
The intra-annual strength of these features is controlled by seasonal atmospheric and fluvial variations. During the spring, the Batumi eddy forms in the southeastern corner of the sea.
This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localized atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months.
It is the remnant of the winter surface mixed layer. Below the pycnocline is the Deep Water mass, where salinity increases to Weak geothermal heating and long residence time create a very thick convective bottom layer.
The Black Sea undersea river is a current of particularly saline water flowing through the Bosporus Strait and along the seabed of the Black Sea.
The discovery of the river announced on August 1, , was made by scientists at the University of Leeds and is the first of its kind in the world.
Because of the anoxic water at depth, organic matter, including anthropogenic artifacts such as boat hulls, are well preserved. During periods of high surface productivity, short-lived algal blooms form organic rich layers known as sapropels.
Scientists have reported an annual phytoplankton bloom that can be seen in many NASA images of the region. Modelling shows that, in the event of an asteroid impact on the Black Sea, the release of hydrogen sulfide clouds would pose a threat to health—and perhaps even life—for people living on the Black Sea coast.
There have been isolated reports of flares on the Black Sea occurring during thunderstorms, possibly caused by lightning igniting combustible gas seeping up from the sea depths.
The Black Sea supports an active and dynamic marine ecosystem, dominated by species suited to the brackish , nutrient-rich, conditions.
As with all marine food webs, the Black Sea features a range of trophic groups, with autotrophic algae, including diatoms and dinoflagellates , acting as primary producers.
The fluvial systems draining Eurasia and central Europe introduce large volumes of sediment and dissolved nutrients into the Black Sea, but the distribution of these nutrients is controlled by the degree of physiochemical stratification, which is, in turn, dictated by seasonal physiographic development.
During winter, strong wind promotes convective overturning and upwelling of nutrients, while high summer temperatures result in a marked vertical stratification and a warm, shallow mixed layer.
Subsurface productivity is limited by nutrient availability, as the anoxic bottom waters act as a sink for reduced nitrate, in the form of ammonia.
The benthic zone also plays an important role in Black Sea nutrient cycling, as chemosynthetic organisms and anoxic geochemical pathways recycle nutrients which can be upwelled to the photic zone, enhancing productivity.
In total, Black Sea's biodiversity contains around one-third of Mediterranean's and is experiencing natural and artificial invasions or Mediterranizations.
The main phytoplankton groups present in the Black Sea are dinoflagellates , diatoms , coccolithophores and cyanobacteria. Generally, the annual cycle of phytoplankton development comprises significant diatom and dinoflagellate-dominated spring production, followed by a weaker mixed assemblage of community development below the seasonal thermocline during summer months and surface-intensified autumn production.
Since the s, rapid industrial expansion along the Black Sea coast line and the construction of a major dam has significantly increased annual variability in the N:P:Si ratio in the basin.
In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2.
The non-diatoms, such as the prymnesiophytes Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore , Chromulina sp. The decline in macrophytes was further compounded by overfishing during the s, while the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis reduced the biomass of copepods and other zooplankton in the late s.
Additionally, an alien species—the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi —was able to establish itself in the basin, exploding from a few individuals to estimated biomass of one billion metric tons.
In central Black Sea waters, Si levels were also significantly reduced, due to a decrease in the flux of Si associated with advection across isopycnal surfaces.
This phenomenon demonstrates the potential for localized alterations in Black Sea nutrient input to have basin-wide effects. Pollution reduction and regulation efforts have led to a partial recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem during the s, and an EU monitoring exercise, 'EROS21', revealed decreased N and P values, relative to the peak.
Mnemiopsis leidyi populations have been checked with the arrival of another alien species which feeds on them. Hermit crab , Diogenes pugilator.
Black Sea Common Dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi. In the past, the range of the Asiatic lion extended from South Asia to the Balkans , possibly up to the Danube.
Places like Turkey and the Trans-Caucasus were in this range. The Caspian tiger occurred in eastern Turkey and the Caucasus , at least. The lyuti zver Old East Slavic for "fierce animal" that was encountered by Vladimir II Monomakh , Velikiy Kniaz of Kievan Rus' which ranged to the Black Sea in the south ,  may have been a tiger or leopard , rather than a wolf or lynx , due to the way it behaved towards him and his horse.
Short-term climatic variation in the Black Sea region is significantly influenced by the operation of the North Atlantic oscillation , the climatic mechanisms resulting from the interaction between the north Atlantic and mid-latitude air masses.
The relative strength of these systems also limits the amount of cold air arriving from northern regions during winter. The Black Sea is connected to the World Ocean by a chain of two shallow straits, the Dardanelles and the Bosporus.
There is also evidence that water levels in the Black Sea were considerably lower at some point during the post-glacial period.
Some researchers theorize that the Black Sea had been a landlocked freshwater lake at least in upper layers during the last glaciation and for some time after.
In the aftermath of the last glacial period, water levels in the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea rose independently until they were high enough to exchange water.
The exact timeline of this development is still subject to debate. One possibility is that the Black Sea filled first, with excess freshwater flowing over the Bosporus sill and eventually into the Mediterranean Sea.
There are also catastrophic scenarios, such as the " Black Sea deluge theory " put forward by William Ryan , Walter Pitman and Petko Dimitrov.
The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa BC due to waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosporus Strait.
The hypothesis was headlined when The New York Times published it in December , shortly before it was published in an academic journal.
Relevant to the hypothesis is that its description has led some to connect this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths. The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the west, the Eurasian steppes to the north, the Caucasus and Central Asia to the east, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west.
The oldest processed gold in the world was found in Varna , Bulgaria, and Greek mythology portrays the Argonauts as sailing on the Black Sea.
The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis , now Georgia , marked for the Greeks the edge of the known world.
The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland Urheimat of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language , PIE the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars such as Marija Gimbutas ; others move the homeland further east towards the Caspian Sea , yet others to Anatolia.
Greek presence in the Black Sea began at least as early as the 9th century BC with colonization of the Black Sea's southern coast. By BC, permanent Greek communities existed all around the Black Sea and a lucrative trade network connected the entirety of the Black Sea to the wider Mediterranean.
While Greek colonies generally maintained very close cultural ties to their founding polis , Greek colonies in the Black Sea began to develop their own Black Sea Greek culture, know today as Pontic.
The coastal community of Black Sea Greeks remained a prominent part of the Greek World for centuries. The Black Sea became a virtual Ottoman Navy lake within five years of Genoa losing the Crimean Peninsula in , after which the only Western merchant vessels to sail its waters were those of Venice 's old rival Ragusa.
This restriction was challenged by the Russian Navy from until the relaxation of export controls in because of the French Revolution.
The Black Sea was a significant naval theatre of World War I and saw both naval and land battles during World War II. Ancient trade routes in the region are currently [ when?
Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen.
This concentration of historical powers , combined with the preservative qualities of the deep anoxic waters of the Black Sea, has attracted increased interest from marine archaeologists who have begun to discover a large number of ancient ships and organic remains in a high state of preservation.
According to NATO, the Black sea is a strategic corridor that provides smuggling channels for moving legal and illegal goods including drugs, radioactive materials, and counterfeit goods that can be used to finance terrorism.
According to the International Transport Workers' Federation study, there were at least 30 operating merchant seaports in the Black Sea including at least 12 in Ukraine.
According to the International Transport Workers' Federation study, there were around 2, commercial vessels operating in the Black Sea.
Anchovy : the Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around , tons per year on average, and fishery carried out mainly in winter and the highest portion of the stock is caught between November and December.
Since the s, the Soviet Union started offshore drilling for petroleum in the sea's western portion adjoining Ukraine 's coast. Independent Ukraine continued and intensified that effort within its exclusive economic zone , inviting major international oil companies for exploration.
Discovery of the new, massive oilfields in the area stimulated an influx of foreign investments. It also provoked a short-term peaceful territorial dispute with Romania which was resolved in by an international court redefining the exclusive economic zones between the two countries.
In the years following the end of the Cold War , the popularity of the Black Sea as a tourist destination steadily increased.
Tourism at Black Sea resorts became one of the region's growth industries. The Montreux Convention provides for free passage of civilian ships between the international waters of the Black and the Mediterranean Seas.
However, a single country Turkey has complete control over the straits connecting the two seas. Military ships are separate categories from civilian ships and they can only pass through the straits if the ship is belonging to a Black Seapower.
Other military ships have the right to pass through the straits if they are not in a war against Turkey and they can stay in the Black Sea basin for a limited time.
The amendments to the Montreux Convention allow Turkey to close the Straits at its discretion in both wartime and peacetime. The Montreux Convention governs the passage of vessels between the Black, the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and the presence of military vessels belonging to non- littoral states in the Black Sea waters.
In December , the Kerch Strait incident took place. The Russian Navy and Coast guard took control of three ships belonging to their counterparts.
The ships were trying to enter the Black Sea . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Asia.
This article is about the large body of water. For other uses, see Black Sea disambiguation. For the town of ancient Caria, see Euxine Caria.
Main articles: Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Drainage basin. See also: List of fish of the Black Sea. Goat fish. Spiny dogfish.
Main article: List of islands in the Black Sea. This section does not cite any sources.Beyond the Black is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Beyond the Black and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and... The Black Sheep. likes. Offizieller Facebook-Account der deutschen Rock-Band THE BLACK SHEEP. The Black Eyed Peas [ˌblæk.aɪd.ˈpiːz] (dt.: Die Schwarzaugenbohnen) ist eine US-amerikanische Hip-Hop-Gruppe aus Los Angeles. Der Musikgruppe. The Black bezeichnet: The Black (Album), Musikalbum von Asking Alexandria. Bands: The Black (italienische Band), italienische Heavy-Metal- und. Outstanding Stunt Coordination for a Drama Series, Limited Series or Movie. Jan 10, Mya rated it it was amazing. No trivia or quizzes yet. A Canon Pixma Mx925 Fehler B200 Beheben of the technology used is detailed to a fault in some cases. Luckily for us, February brings a 4/27/ · The Black Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia; east of the Balkans in Southeastern Europe, south of the East European Plain in Eastern Europe, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia in Western bearnsonmd.com is supplied by major rivers, principally the Danube, Dnieper and bearnsonmd.com watersheds of many countries drain into the sea beyond the six that share its. 7/5/ · The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mids. Explore the facts of the plague, the symptoms it . The new 2-LP deluxe edition features new artwork and a gatefold with unpublished in-studio and live photographs, three brand new songs, live in-studio recordings, a cover of Tracy Chapman’s “Fast Car” as well as a bonus 7-inch featuring covers of The Beatles, and Legendary Bobby Blue Bland tunes. Black Pumas (Deluxe Edition) is available now. The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mids. Explore the facts of the plague, the symptoms it caused and how millions died from it. "The Black" takes place on an oil rig called The Leaguer. Its a new drill site that all testing says is the jackpot of oil. As the crew continues preparing to extract the oil that is believed lead them to a big pay day, changes in the geography of the ocean floor are noticed. The Blacklist is an American crime thriller television series that premiered on NBC on September 23, The show follows Raymond "Red" Reddington (James Spader), a former U.S. Navy officer turned high-profile criminal who voluntarily surrenders to the FBI after eluding capture for decades. The Official Music Video for the song "The Black" by Asking bearnsonmd.com Directed By: Ramon Boutviseth --Asking Alexandria // OUT NOWCD/LP/Bundles: http.